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There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris.
The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France , always finishes in Paris. Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open , held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,  is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour.
The 17,seat Bercy Arena officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports.
The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4, capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin. Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub.
In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world.
The city is served by three commercial international airports: Together these three airports recorded traffic of Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the s to the s.
Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports , the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China , whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles , Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.
The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris.
These include piste cyclable bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb and bande cyclable a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road.
Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. In , Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.
Paris today has more than municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3, hectares and containing more than , trees. After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.
New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine.
The hospitals receive more than 5. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since Radio France Internationale , another public broadcaster is also based in the city.
Since 9 April , Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with: Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 January This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris disambiguation.
Fluctuat nec mergitur "Tossed by the waves but never sunk". See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French.
History of Paris and Timeline of Paris. Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century.
Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris. Religious buildings in Paris. List of most visited museums. List of museums in Paris.
Music in Paris and History of music in Paris. List of films set in Paris. List of railway stations in Paris. List of twin towns and sister cities of Paris.
Paris portal France portal European Union portal. Retrieved 6 March RATP Paris metro operator. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 26 October Le Moniteur in French.
Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 24 April Site of Grand Paris Express.
Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 29 November The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 20 June Le Monde in French.
Retrieved 15 January Le Figaro in French. Retrieved 11 January Retrieved 14 November From Paris and Brussels terror to most recent attacks in Europe".
Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 29 June Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau.
Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 27 February Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 24 May — via Paris.
Statistiques — et records in French. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 9 March Paris-Montsouris 75 — altitude 75m" in French.
Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 19 May Retrieved January 21, Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 16 June Embassy of France, Washington.
Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 4 April Mairie de Paris in French.
Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 March Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 3 July Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 20 November Islam, Conviviality and Contentious Politics in Europe.
Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 30 October Le Soir in French. Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original on 7 July Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 2 July Carmen , Susan McClary, p.
The Essential Canon of Classical Music. Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 22 December Between New York and Paris: Retrieved 5 October The Times of India.
Archived from the original on 2 July Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 16 September The Fundamentals of Fashion Management.
Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 18 June University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries. Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 11 November Global Wood Markets Info.
Retrieved 15 May Foul Paris goes to the dogs". Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 27 March Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 10 September No — Was It Before?
Arbois de Jubainville, Henry; Dottin, George The Architecture of Paris. Beevor, Antony; Cooper, Artemis Paris After the Liberation: The Spirit of Cities: Berg, Leo van den; Braun, Erik Paris in the age of Louis XIV.
Blackmore, Ruth; McConnachie, James Rough Guide to Paris 9th ed. Rough Guide Paris Directions. Boogert, Kate van der Five Hundred Buildings of Paris.
Land Use and Soil Resources. City of Light, City of Dark: Paris and the Ile de France. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. The City and the Grassroots: University of California Press.
Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Histoire de Paris in French. Presses universitaires de France. Iron Age communities in Britain: Daniel Jay Grimminger Ph.
Damschroeder, David; Williams, David Russell Music Theory from Zarlino to Schenker: A Bibliography and Guide.
De Moncan, Patrice Les jardins du Baron Haussmann. Les Editions du Mecene. Dosch, Dee Davidson Grammaire, Textes et Glossaire in French.
The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend: The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend. Du Camp, Maxim Dutton, Paul Edward The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire.
U of Nebraska Press. Paris as Seen and Described by Famous Writers Fallon, Steve; Williams, Nicola Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris.
Marie Antoinette in the Conciergerie, a lecture. Fraser, Benjamin; Spalding, Steven D. Trains, Culture, and Mobility: The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The making of revolutionary Paris [electronic resource].
Droughts And Heat Waves: A Practical Survival Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. The European Cities and Technology Reader: Industrial to Post-industrial City.
Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities. Sociability Among the French Working Class, — Hall, Peter; Pain, Kathy Learning from Mega-City Regions in Europe.
The Dead and the Living in Paris and London, — Going to Live in Paris: How To Books Ltd. Politics and Religion in France and the United States.
The Invention of Paris: A History in Footsteps. A Chronological Account of the History of France. Capital of the World. Seven Ages of Paris.
Through the French Canals 12th ed. Biography of a City. Grammaire des jardins parisiens: Kaberry, Rachel; Brown, Amy K. Connecting the Classroom to the Community.
Knapp, Andrew; Wright, Vincent The Government and Politics of France. Krinsky, Carol Herselle Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne Paris City Guide 12th ed.
Leclanche, Maria Spyropoulou Lester, Paul Martin Madge, Charles; Willmott, Peter Inner City Poverty in Paris and London. Amazing People of Paris: The Police, State and Society: Perspectives from India and France.
Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield Paris Green Guide Michelin — Montclos, Jean-Marie Perouse De Paris, City of Art.
Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: Nevez, Catherine Le Newman, Peter; Thornley, Andy Urban Planning in Europe: Modeled after the Escorial in Spain , it combined a convent, a church, and royal apartments for the widowed queen.
During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Paris nearly doubled, reaching , at the end of the reign of Louis XIII in The new residences featured two new and original specialized rooms: Near the end of new bridge on the Left Bank, a new fashionable neighborhood, the Faubourg Saint-Germain , soon appeared.
Beginning in , the Louvre Galerie was created, where painters, sculptors, and artisans lived and established their workshops.
The first botanical garden in France, the Jardin du Roy, renamed Jardin des Plantes in after the monarchy was abolished during the French Revolution , was founded in , both as a conservatory of medicinal plants and for botanical research.
It was the first public garden in Paris. The first permanent theatre in Paris was created by Cardinal Richelieu in within his Palais-Cardinal.
When they refused to pay, Mazarin had the leaders arrested. This marked the beginning a long uprising, known as the Fronde , that pitted the Parisian nobility against royal authority; it lasted from to He moved his Paris residence from the Palais-Royal to the more secure Louvre and then, in , he moved the royal residence out of the city to Versailles and came into Paris as seldom as possible.
Despite the distrust of the king, Paris continued to grow and prosper, reaching a population of between , and , The king named Jean-Baptiste Colbert as his new Superintendent of Buildings, and Colbert began an ambitious building programme to make Paris the successor to ancient Rome.
To make his intention clear, Louis XIV organised a festival in the carrousel of the Tuileries in January , in which he appeared, on horseback, in the costume of a Roman Emperor, followed by the nobility of Paris.
Inside the Louvre, his architect Louis Le Vau and his decorator Charles Le Brun created the Gallery of Apollo, the ceiling of which featured an allegoric figure of the young king steering the chariot of the sun across the sky.
Louis XIV declared that Paris was secure against any attack and no longer needed its walls. He demolished the main city walls, creating the space which eventually became the Grands Boulevards.
To celebrate the destruction of the old walls, he built two small arches of triumph, the Porte Saint-Denis and the Porte Saint-Martin For the poor of Paris, life was very different.
Crime in the dark streets was a serious problem. Metal lanterns were hung in the streets, and Colbert increased to four hundred the number of archers who acted as night watchmen.
Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie was appointed the first lieutenant-general of police of Paris in , a position he held for thirty years; his successors reported directly to the king.
Louis XIV died on 1 September The regent devoted his attention to theater, opera, costume balls, and the courtesans of Paris. He made one important contribution to Paris intellectual life.
On 15 June , distrustful of the turbulence in Paris, the regent moved the court back to Versailles; afterwards, Louis XV visited the city only on special occasions.
The plans were approved by the king in and work continued until the French Revolution. Under Louis XV, the city expanded westward.
At the beginning of the boulevard, between the Cours-la-Reine and the Tuileries gardens, a large square was created between and , with an equestrian statue of Louis XV in the center.
Between and , Paris grew in population from , to , It was no longer the largest city in Europe; London passed it in population in about , but it was still growing at a rapid rate, due largely to migration from the Paris basin and from the north and east of France.
The center of the city became more and more crowded; building lots became smaller and buildings taller, up to four, five and even six stories.
In , the height of buildings was finally limited to nine toises , or about eighteen meters. In the 18th century, Paris was the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment.
It provided intellectuals across Europe with a high quality survey of human knowledge. Paris was the financial capital of France and continental Europe, the primary European center of book publishing, fashion, and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.
By , the Faubourg Saint-Germain had replaced Le Marais as the most fashionable residential neighborhood for the aristocracy and the wealthy, who built magnificent private mansions, most of which later became government residences or institutions: The predominant architectural style in Paris from the midth century until the regime of Louis Philippe was neo-classicism, based on the model of Greco-Roman architecture; the most classical example was the new church of La Madeleine , whose construction began in It was so widely used that it invited criticism.
How they live on copies, on eternal repetition! They all more or less resemble temples. Historian Daniel Roche estimated that in there were between , and , indigent persons in Paris, or about a third of the population.
The number grew in times of economic hardship. This included only those who were officially recognized and assisted by the churches and the city.
Paris in the first half of the 18th century had many beautiful buildings, but many observers did not consider it a beautiful city.
The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau described his disappointment when he first arrived in Paris from Lyon in In , in his Embellissements de Paris , Voltaire obvserved this: Immense neighbourhoods need public places.
The centre of the city is dark, cramped, hideous, something from the time of the most shameful barbarism.
The main working-class neighbourhood was the old Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern side of the city, a centre for woodwork and furniture-making since the Middle Ages.
The city continued to spread outwards, especially toward the semi-rural west and northwest, where one- and two-story stone and wooden houses were mingled with vegetable gardens, shacks, and workshops.
For the first time, metal plates or stone were put up to indicate the names of streets, and each building was given a number. Rules for hygiene, safety and traffic circulation were codified by the Lieutenant-General of Police.
The first oil lamps were installed on the streets late in the 18th century. Large steam pumps were built at Gros-Caillaux and Chaillot to distribute water to the neighbourhoods that could afford it.
The first fire brigades were organised between and , particularly after a large fire destroyed the opera house of the Palais-Royal in In the streets of Paris, the chairs in which the aristocrats and rich bourgeois were carried by their servants gradually disappeared and were replaced by horse-drawn carriages, both private and for hire.
By , there were more than ten thousand carriages for hire in Paris, the first Paris taxis. In order to raise revenues by charging taxes on merchandise coming into the city, Paris was encircled between and by a new wall that stopped merchants who wished to enter Paris.
Portions of the wall can still be seen at the Place Denfert-Rochereau and the Place de la Nation , and one of the toll gates is still standing in the Parc Monceau.
The wall and the taxes were highly unpopular, and, along with shortages of bread, fuelled the growing discontent which eventually exploded in the French Revolution.
In the summer of , Paris became the center stage of the French Revolution and events that changed the history of France and Europe.
In , the population of Paris was between , and , The population included about one hundred thousand extremely poor and unemployed persons, many of whom had recently moved to Paris to escape hunger in the countryside.
Known as the sans-culottes , they made up as much as a third of the population of the eastern neighborhoods and became important actors in the Revolution.
On 11 July , soldiers of the Royal-Allemand regiment attacked a large but peaceful demonstration on the Place Louis XV organized to protest the dismissal by the king of his reformist finance minister Jacques Necker.
The reform movement turned quickly into a revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides , acquired thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille , a prison that was a symbol of royal authority, but at that time held only seven prisoners.
The governor of the Bastille, the Marquis de Launay , surrendered and then was killed, his head put on the end of a pike and carried around Paris. The provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles , was also murdered.
On 5 October , a large crowd of Parisians marched to Versailles and, the following day, brought the royal family and government back to Paris, virtually as prisoners.
On 21 May , the Charter of the City of Paris was adopted, declaring the city independent of royal authority: It was governed by a mayor, sixteen administrators and thirty-two city council members.
Bailly was formally elected mayor by the Parisians on 2 August The units of the National Guard, led by Lafayette, took an oath to defend "The Nation, the Law and the King" and swore to uphold the Constitution approved by the king.
Aristocrats continued to leave Paris for safety in the countryside or abroad. On 17 July , the National Guard fired upon a gathering of petitioners on the Champs de Mars, killing dozens and widening the gulf between the more moderate and more radical revolutionaries.
Revolutionary life was centered around political clubs. In April , Austria declared war on France, and in June , the Duke of Brunswick , commander of the army of the King of Prussia , threatened to destroy Paris unless the Parisians accepted the authority of their king.
Upon learning that a mob of sans-culottes was approaching the Tuileries Palace, the royal family took refuge at the nearby Assembly.
In the attack of the Tuileries Palace, the mob killed the last defenders of the king, his Swiss Guards , then ransacked the palace.
Threatened by the sans-culottes, the Assembly "suspended" the power of the king and, on 11 August, declared that France would be governed by a National Convention.
On 21 September, at its first meeting, the Convention abolished the monarchy, and the next day declared France to be a republic.
The Convention moved its meeting place to a large hall, a former theatre, the Salle des Machines within the Tuileries Palace.
The new government imposed a Reign of Terror upon France. From 2 to 6 September , bands of sans-culottes broke into the prisons and murdered refractory priests, aristocrats and common criminals.
Marie Antoinette was executed on the same square on 16 October During the Reign of Terror, 16, persons were tried by the revolutionary tribune and executed by the guillotine.
Property of the aristocracy and the Church was confiscated and declared Biens nationaux national property. The churches were closed.
New forms of address were required: Monsieur and Madame were replaced by Citoyen "citizen" and Citoyenne "citizeness" , and the formal vous "you" was replaced by the more proletarian tu.
On order of the Legislative Assembly in a decree of August ,  the sans-culottes knocked down the spire of Notre Dame Cathedral in A decree of 1 August was issued to commemorate the first anniversary of the fall of the monarchy by destroying the tombs at the royal necropolis of Saint-Denis.
Many churches were sold as public property and were demolished for their stone and other construction material. A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris: On 27 July , Robespierre himself was arrested by a coalition of Montagnards and moderates.
The following day, he was guillotined in the company of twenty-one of his political allies. His execution marked the end of the Reign of Terror.
The executions then ceased and the prisons gradually emptied. A small group of scholars and historians collected statues and paintings from the demolished churches, and made a storeroom of the old Couvent des Petits-Augustins, in order to preserve them.
The paintings went to the Louvre, where the Central Museum of the Arts was opened at the end of A new government, the Directory , took the place of the Convention.
It moved its headquarters to the Luxembourg Palace and limited the autonomy of Paris. Bonaparte used cannon and grapeshot to clear the streets of demonstrators.
The population of Paris had dropped to , by ,  but building still continued. Other landmarks were converted to new purposes: The two first covered commercial streets in Paris, the Passage du Caire and the Passage des Panoramas , were opened in First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte moved into the Tuileries Palace on 19 February and immediately began to re-establish calm and order after the years of uncertainty and terror of the Revolution.
He made peace with the Catholic church by signing the Concordat of with Pope Pius VII ; masses were held again in all churches in Paris and in the whole of France , priests were allowed to wear ecclesiastical clothing again, and churches were permitted to ring their bells.
The first prefect, Louis Nicolas Dubois, was appointed on 8 March and held his position until After he crowned himself Emperor on 2 December , Napoleon began a series of projects to make Paris into an imperial capital to rival ancient Rome.
In , Napoleon built a revolutionary iron bridge, the Pont des Arts , across the Seine. It was decorated with two greenhouses of exotic plants and rows of orange trees.
Passage across the bridge cost one sou. In , in imitation of Ancient Rome, Napoleon ordered the construction of a series of monuments dedicated to the military glory of France.
He ordered the building of the smaller Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel — , copied from the arch of Arch of Septimius Severus and Constantine in Rome, in line with the center of the Tuileries Palace.
The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is the easternmost monument of the historical axis of Paris. Napoleon also looked after the infrastructure of the city, which had been neglected for years.
In , he began construction of the Ourq canal to bring fresh water to the city and built the Bassin de la Villette to serve as a reservoir. He also began construction of the Canal Saint-Martin to further river transportation within the city.
Following the downfall of Napoleon after the defeat of Waterloo on 18 June , , soldiers of the Seventh Coalition armies from England, Austria, Russia and Prussia occupied Paris and remained until December The aristocrats who had emigrated returned to their town houses in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, and the cultural life of the city quickly resumed, though on a less extravagant scale.
A new opera house was constructed on Rue Le Peletier. Work continued on the Arc de Triomphe , and the new churches in the neoclassical style were constructed to replace those destroyed during the Revolution: The Temple of Glory created by Napoleon to celebrate military heroes was turned back into a church, the church of La Madeleine.
Paris grew quickly, and passed , in It greatly speeded the movement of people inside the city and became a model for other cities.
The "New Athens" neighbourhood became, during the Restoration and the July Monarchy , the home of artists and writers: Louis XVIII was succeeded by his brother Charles X in , but new the government became increasingly unpopular with both the upper classes and the general population of Paris.
The play Hernani by the twenty-eight-year-old Victor Hugo , caused disturbances and fights in the theater audience because of its calls for freedom of expression.
On 26 July, Charles X signed decrees limiting freedom of the press and dissolving the Parliament, provoking demonstrations which turned into riots which turned into a general uprising.
The population of Paris increased from , in to 1,, in , as the city grew to the north and west, but the poorest neighborhoods in the center became even more densely crowded.
Water was distributed by porters carrying buckets from a pole on their shoulders, and the sewers emptied directly into the Seine.
A cholera outbreak in killed twenty thousand people. The Comte de Rambuteau , the Prefect of the Seine for fifteen years under Louis-Philippe, made tentative efforts to improve the center of the city: He built a new street now the Rue Rambuteau to connect the Le Marais district with the markets and began construction of Les Halles , the famous central market of Paris, which was finished by Napoleon III.
His chief contribution to the monuments of Paris was the completion of the Place de la Concorde in The Place de la Concorde was further embellished on 25 October by the placement of the Luxor Obelisk , weighing two hundred fifty tons, which was carried to France from Egypt on a specially-built ship.
The ashes of Napoleon were returned to Paris from Saint Helena in a solemn ceremony on 15 December at the Invalides. In , he completed a column in the Place de la Bastille dedicated to the July revolution that had brought him to power.
The first railway stations in Paris were built under Louis-Philippe. Each belonged to a different company. They were not connected to each other and were outside the center of the city.
As the population of Paris grew, so did discontent in the working-class neighborhoods. There were riots in , , , , and The growing unrest finally exploded on 23 February , when a large demonstration was broken up by the army.
Barricades went up in the eastern working-class neighborhoods. The king reviewed his soldiers in front of the Tuileries Palace, but, instead of cheering him, many shouted "Long Live Reform!
In December , Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte , the nephew of Napoleon I, became the first elected President of France, winning seventy-four percent of the vote.
Because of the sharp divisions between monarchists and republicans, the "Prince-President" was able to accomplish little, and he was prevented by the Constitution from running for re-election.
A cholera epidemic in the overcrowded center in killed twenty thousand people. Napoleon began by enlarging the city limits beyond the twelve arrondissements established in The towns around Paris had resisted becoming part of the city, fearing higher taxes; Napoleon used his new imperial power to annex them, adding eight new arrondissements to the city and bringing it to its present size.
Over the next seventeen years, Napoleon and Haussmann transformed entirely the appearance of Paris. The new boulevards also made it harder to build barricades in the neighborhoods prone to uprisings and revolutions, but, as Haussmann himself wrote, this was not the main purpose of the boulevards.
These standards gave central Paris the street plan and distinctive look it still retains today. Napoleon III also wanted to give the Parisians, particularly those in the outer neighborhoods, access to green space for recreation and relaxation.
He was inspired by Hyde Park in London , which he had often visited when he was in exile there. He ordered the construction of four large new parks at the four cardinal points of the compass around the city; the Bois de Boulogne to the west; the Bois de Vincennes to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont to the north; and Parc Montsouris to the south, plus many smaller parks and squares around the city, so that no neighbourhood was more than a ten-minute walk from a park.
They improved the sanitation of the city by building new sewers and water mains under the streets and built a new reservoir and aqueduct to increase the supply of fresh water.
In addition, they installed tens of thousands of gaslights to illuminate the streets and monuments. They completely rebuilt the central market of the city, Les Halles , built the first railway bridge over the Seine, and also built the monumental Fontaine Saint-Michel at the beginning of the new Boulevard Saint-Michel.
They also redesigned the street architecture of Paris, installing new street lamps, kiosks, omnibus stops and public toilets called "chalets of necessity" , which were specially designed by the city architect Gabriel Davioud , and which gave the Paris boulevards their distinct harmony and look.
In the late s, Napoleon III decided to liberalize his regime and gave greater freedom and power to the legislature. Haussmann became the chief target of criticism in the parliament, blamed for the unorthodox ways in which he financed his projects, for amputating four hectares from the thirty hectares of the Luxembourg Gardens in order to make room for new streets, and for the general inconvenience his projects caused to Parisians for nearly two decades.
In January , Napoleon was forced to dismiss him. The first large-scale industries arrived in Paris during the reign of Napoleon.
They flourished in the outskirts of the city, where buildings and land, often taken from churches and convents closed during the French Revolution, were available.
Large textile mills were built in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine and the Faubourg Saint-Denis, and the first sugar refinery using sugar beets was opened in Passy in to replace shipments of sugar from the West Indies blocked by the British blockade.
In , Paris had nine hundred enterprises that employed 60, workers, but only twenty-four enterprises had more than workers.
Most Parisians were employed in small workshops. In , there were , workers in Paris in 65, enterprises, but only 7, enterprises had more than ten workers.
The textile industry declined, but at mid-century Paris produced 20 percent of the steam engines and machinery in France and had the third largest metallurgy industry.
New chemical plants, highly polluting, appeared around the edges of the city in Javel, Grenelle , Passy, Clichy , Belleville and Pantin.
Paris emerged as an international center of finance in the midth century second only to London. Napoleon III had the goal of overtaking London to make Paris the premier financial center of the world, but the war in hit finance hard and sharply reduced the range of the financial influence of Paris.
Its innovations included both private and public sources in funding large projects and the creation of a network of local offices to reach a much larger pool of depositors.
The Paris Bourse or stock exchange emerged as a key market for investors to buy and sell securities. It was primarily a forward market, and it pioneered the creation of a mutual guarantee fund so that failures of major brokers would not escalate into a devastating financial crisis.
Speculators in the s, who disliked the control of the Bourse, used a less regulated alternative, the "Coulisse". However it collapsed in the face of the simultaneous failure of a number of its brokers in — The Bourse secured legislation that guaranteed its monopoly, increased control of the curb market, and reduced the risk of another financial panic.
He abdicated on 4 September, with the Third Republic proclaimed that same day in Paris. On 19 September, the Prussian army arrived at Paris and besieged the city until January During the siege, the city suffered from cold and hunger.
Cats, rats, dogs, horses, and other animals were killed for food, even Castor and Pollux, the two elephants of the zoo, as well as the elephant at the Jardin des Plantes.
The Prussians briefly occupied the city and then took up positions nearby. A revolt broke out on 18 March , when radicalized soldiers from the Paris National Guard killed two French generals.
Government officials and the army withdrew quickly to Versailles, and a new city council, the Paris Commune , dominated by anarchists and radical socialists, was elected and took power on March The Commune tried to implement an ambitious and radical social program, but held power for only two months.
Between May 21 and 28, the French army reconquered the city in bitter fighting in what became known as the " Bloody Week.
Their military commander, Louis Charles Delescluze , committed suicide by dramatically standing atop a barricade on May Army casualties from the beginning of April through the Bloody Week amounted to dead and 6, wounded.
Nearly 7, Communards were killed in combat or summarily executed by army firing squads afterwards. They were buried in the city cemeteries and in temporary mass graves.
Of the 45, prisoners taken after the fall of the Commune, most were released, but 23 were sentenced to death, and about 10, were sentenced to prison or deportation to New Caledonia or other prison colonies.
All the prisoners and exiles were amnestied in and and most returned to France, where some were elected to the National Assembly.
After the fall of the Commune, Paris was governed under the strict surveillance of the conservative national government. The government and parliament did not return to the city from Versailles until , although the Senate returned earlier to its seat in the Luxembourg Palace.
It was not finished until , but quickly became one of the most recognizable landmarks in Paris. Radical Republicans dominated the Paris municipal elections of , winning 75 of the 80 municipal council seats.
In , they changed the name of many of the Paris streets and squares: The walls of the Tuileries Palace were still standing. In , it had the ruins pulled down.
The most memorable Parisian civic event during the period was the funeral of Victor Hugo in The Arc de Triomphe was draped in black.
At the end of the century, Paris began to modernise its public transport system to try to catch up with London. The first metro line was begun in between the Porte Maillot and the Porte de Vincennes.
It was finished in time for the Universal Exposition. Two new bridges were built over the Seine. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Paris became the birthplace of modern art and public cinema projections.
Auguste Renoir rented space at 12 Rue Cartot in to paint his Bal du moulin de la Galette , which depicts a dance at Montmartre on a Sunday afternoon.
Maurice Utrillo lived at the same address from to , and Raoul Dufy shared an atelier there from to Several noted composers, including Erik Satie , also lived in this neighborhood.
Most of the artists left after the outbreak of World War I, the majority of them to take up residence in the Montparnasse quarter. In late 19th- and early 20th-century Paris, wealth was growing rapidly, and it became increasingly concentrated.
Paris from to was a "rentier society". These were "dream machines" that set the world standard for consumption of fine products by the upper classes as well as the rising middle class.
He became owner in and transformed it into the first modern department store in Paris with high-volume buying, low profit margins, seasonal sales, discounts, advertising, a mail-order catalog, and entertainment and prizes for customers, spouses and children.
The French gloried in the national prestige brought by the great Parisian stores. Zola represented it as a symbol of the new technology that was both improving society and devouring it.
The novel describes merchandising, management techniques, marketing, and consumerism. The Grands Magasins Dufayel was a huge department store with inexpensive prices built in in the northern part of Paris, where it reached a very large new customer base in the working class.
In a neighborhood with few public spaces, it provided a consumer version of the public square. It educated workers to approach shopping as an exciting social activity, not just a routine exercise in obtaining necessities, in the same way as the bourgeoisie did at the famous department stores in the central city.
Like the bourgeois stores, it helped transform consumption from a business transaction into a direct relationship between consumer and sought-after goods.
Its advertisements promised the opportunity to participate in the newest, most fashionable consumerism at reasonable cost.
The latest technology was featured, such as cinemas and exhibits of inventions such as X-ray machines that could be used to fit shoes and the gramophone.
Despite the low pay and long hours, they enjoyed the exciting complex interactions with the newest and most fashionable merchandise and upscale customers.
In the second half of the 19th century, Paris hosted five international expositions that attracted millions of visitors and made Paris an increasingly important center of technology, trade, and tourism.
The Expositions celebrated the cult of technology and industrial production, both through the impressive iron architecture in which the exhibits were displayed and the almost demonic energy of machines and installations in place.
The classification system of Bordeaux wines was developed especially for the Exposition. The Paris International Exposition in , also hosted by Napoleon III, was held in an enormous oval exhibit hall metres long and metres wide in the Champ de Mars.
The Bateaux Mouches excursion riverboats made their first journeys on the Seine during the Exposition. Alexander Graham Bell displayed his new telephone, Thomas Edison presented his phonograph , and the head of the newly-finished Statue of Liberty was displayed before it was sent to New York to be attached to the body.
The Exposition attracted thirteen million visitors. The Universal Exposition of , which also took place on the Champ de Mars, celebrated the centenary of the beginning of the French Revolution.
The most memorable feature was the Eiffel Tower , meters tall when it opened now with the addition of broadcast antennas , which served as the gateway to the Exposition.
Other popular exhibits included the first musical fountain, lit with colored electric lights, changing in time to music. The Universal Exposition of celebrated the turn of the century.
It also took place at the Champ de Mars and attracted fifty million visitors. Inside the exhibit hall, Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his new engine, and the first escalator was on display.
The Exposition coincided with the Paris Olympics , the first time that the Olympic games were held outside of Greece. It also popularised a new artistic style, Art nouveau , to the world.
The French government moved to Bordeaux on 2 September, and the great masterpieces of the Louvre were transported to Toulouse.
Early in the First Battle of the Marne , on September 5, , the French army desperately needed reinforcements. General Galieni, the military governor of Paris, lacked trains.
He requisioned buses and, most famously, about Paris taxicabs that were used to carry six thousand troops to the front at Nanteuil-le-Haudouin , fifty kilometers away.
Each taxi carried five soldiers following the lights of the taxi ahead, and the mission was accomplished within twenty-four hours. The Germans were surprised and were pushed back by the French and British armies.
The number of soldiers transported was small, but the effect on French morale was enormous; it confirmed the solidarity between the people and the army.
The city was bombed by German heavy Gotha bombers and by Zeppelins. The Parisians suffered epidemics of typhoid and measles ; a deadly outbreak of Spanish influenza during the winter of killed thousands of Parisians.
In the spring of , the German army launched a new offensive and threatened Paris once more, bombing it with the Paris Gun. On 29 March , one shell struck the Church of Saint-Gervais and killed 88 persons.
Sirens were installed to warn the population of impending bombardments. The Germans were pushed back once again, and the armistice was declared on 11 November Life in Paris was difficult during the war: Consumer co-operatives sprang up and municipalities developed communal gardening spaces.
Coal was critically short in the unusually cold winter of The outer neighborhoods of the city, particularly the 13th, 14th, 15th and 18th arrondissements, became centers of the defense industry, producing trucks, cannons, ambulances, and munitions.
As factory workers were drafted and sent to the front, their places were taken by women as well as , colonials from Africa and Indo-China who were closely watched by the government.
Antiwar voices existed, but did not represent a strong base. While the government stressed efficiency and maximizing supplies for the army, the working class was largely committed to a traditional sense of consumer rights, whereby it was the duty of the government to provide the basic food, housing and fuel for the city.
Hoarding and profiteering were evils that citizens should organize to combat. After the war, unemployment surged, prices soared, and rationing continued; Parisian households were limited to grams of bread per day and meat only four days a week.
A general strike paralysed the city on 21 July The future leader of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh , worked in Paris from to , studying nationalism and socialism.
The old fortifications surrounding the city were useless and torn down in the s. They were replaced by tens of thousands of low-cost seven-story public housing units that were filled by low-income blue-collar workers who mostly voted socialist or communist.
In the s, they would be replaced by refugees from Algeria. The result was a bourgeois central city surrounded by a radicalized ring.
Paris was the birthplace of new artistics movements such as Dadaism and Surrealism. They demonstrated an early instance of Negritude values intermingled with race-uplift concerns.
The worldwide Great Depression hit home in and brought with it hardships and a more somber mood in Paris. The population declined slightly from its all-time peak of 2.
The arrondissements in the centre lost as much as twenty percent of their population, while the outer neighborhoods gained ten percent.
The low birth rate of Parisians was compensated by a new wave of immigration from Russia, Poland, Germany, eastern and central Europe, Italy, Portugal and Spain.
The pavilions of the Soviet Union, crowned by a hammer and sickle, and of Germany, with an eagle and swastika on its summit, faced each other in the center of the exhibition.
Instead of a spirit of Paris proclaiming international harmony, the juxtaposition of these two foreign pavilions, trying to outdo each other in political grandiloquence, was a reminder that by the late s, besides its other problems, the city was overshadowed by threatening international rivalries.
The French defense plan was purely passive; the French army simply waited for the Germans to attack. On 31 August, the French government began to evacuate 30, children from Paris to the provinces, the population was issued gas masks, and bomb shelters were constructed in the city squares.
The major works of art of the Louvre and other museums were also evacuated to the Loire Valley and other locations, and the architectural landmarks were protected by sandbags.
The Germans attacked France on 10 May They bypassed the Maginot Line and advanced all the way to the English Channel before heading toward Paris.
Paris was flooded with refugees from the battle zone. On 12 June, Paris was declared an open city. During the Occupation , the French Government moved to Vichy, and the flag of Nazi Germany flew over all the French government buildings.
Signs in German were placed on the main boulevards, and the clocks of Paris were reset to Berlin time. For the Parisians, the occupation was a series of frustrations, shortages and humiliations.
A curfew was in effect from nine in the evening until five in the morning; at night, the city went dark. Rationing of food, tobacco, coal and clothing was imposed from September Every year, the supplies grew scantier and the prices higher.
A million Parisians left the city for the provinces, where there was more food and fewer Germans. French press and radio contained only German propaganda.
Jews were forced to wear the yellow Star of David badge and were barred from certain professions and public places. On 16—17 July , 12, Jews, including 4, children and 5, women, were rounded up by the French police on orders of the Germans.
The first demonstration against the Occupation took place by Paris students on 11 November As the war continued, clandestine groups and networks were created, some loyal to the Communist Party, others to General de Gaulle in London.
They wrote slogans on walls, organized an underground press, and sometimes attacked German officers and soldiers. Reprisals by the Germans were swift and harsh.
Paris was not bombed as often or as heavily as London or Berlin, but the factories and railway yards in the outer parts of the city and suburbs were frequent targets.Die Verteidiger der Stadt wehrten einen ersten dänischen Sturmangriff ab, indem sie siedendes Öl von den Mauern gossen. Die Kirche liegt im 4. August warfen deutsche Flugzeuge Bomben über Paris ab. Dies führte zu einem Aufstand der Arbeiter, Handwerker und Kleinbürger. Der Neffe des Königs: Dank ihrer Seereisen hatten die Wikinger eine ziemlich klare Vorstellung davon, wie schwach die Könige Frankreichs waren und wie reich die Städte Flanderns oder was ein Sklave auf den Märkten des Orients einbrachte. Auch bis in den Mittelmeerraum drangen die Wikinger vor. Der Anführer der Wikinger, Hastings, stellte sich tot, und seine Männer überzeugten die Bewohner von Luna davon, dass der letzte Wunsch ihres Häuptlings ein christliches Begräbnis gewesen sei. Der Bischof lehnte Siegfrieds Vorschlag ab unter Hinweis auf seine Vasallenpflicht, woraufhin sich Siegfried unter Drohungen entfernte. Am linken Ufer entwickelte sich der Siedlungsraum zwischen Seine und den ersten Abhängen. Die Wikinger erobern alles, was auf ihrem Weg liegt. Wie selbstverständlich war es dann auch Paris, in das zu Beginn des